The first documented description of a peer review process is in the book Ethics of physics, written by Ishaq bin Ali al-Rahwi (854-931) of al-Raha (Syria), which describes the first process of peer review in medicine. This work, as well as other later Arabic medical manuals, provides that a visiting physician must always make duplicate notes on patient status at each visit, and when the patient has healed or died, the doctor's notes should be examined by a local council of physicians, who must review the notes of the inspector to decide whether their performance had been adjusted to the standards required for medical city. If this review will have a negative result, the doctor could face trial for patient abuse.
Jabir ibn Hayyan is considered a pioneer of chemistry, as it was responsible for introducing an early experimental scientific method in their field of study, as well as inventions such as the alembic, retort, and chemical processes distillation, filtration, sublimation, liquefaction, crystallisation, purification and evaporation.
The study of traditional alchemy and the theory of transmutation of metals were first refuted by al-Kindi, followed by Al-Biruni, Ibn Sina and Ibn Khaldun. In his Doubts about Galen, al-Razi was the first to demonstrate that both the theory of classical elements of Aristotle's theory of the humors of Galen were false, using an experimental method.Nasir al-Din al Tusi established promitiva version of the law of conservation of mass, noting that although a material body could change, could not disappear. The naturalist Alexander von Humboldt and the historian Will Durant that chemists consider medieval Muslims were the founders of the current chemical science.
Source : http://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epoca_de_aur_a_islamului