Talking about the "history of Islam is also about the history of the Islamic faith as a religion and as a social institution, which are two inseparable aspects: the basic aim of education is that of Prophet Muhammad remember that individuals, and all creation are "subjected" to the divine law (the word "Islam" means "submission"). Therefore advised to consider these laws in all aspects of life, as all ways one can not escape it. Thus, Islam has developed a legislative system, the xaria which, based on sacred texts, attempts to determine what is in accordance with divine laws and that all levels of society.
The history of Islam began in Arabia in the seventh century, with the first recitations of the Koran made by Muhammad. Under the first caliphs and the Umayyads the Caliphate grew rapidly beyond the Arabian Peninsula to become a vast empire with a catchment area covering the north of India, Central Asia and the Middle East and North Africa, southern Italy and the Iberian Peninsula to the Pyrenees.
This civilization underwent a period of great splendor throughout the Middle Ages. Thanks to trade established between various conquered territories and the use of the Arabic language as a unified cultural transmission, the knowledge and techniques of that time were circulating throughout the Muslim world and influenced the various civilizations which contact. Were notable in the inflow of philosophy (with the translation, dissemination and study of ancient Greeks), the various techniques (eg agricultural) to science (especially astronomy, mathematics and medicine) and art.
The recent history of these countries has been marked by colonialism and the influence of western civilization in general. On the one hand the Islamic world has assimilated the concepts of democracy and secular state on the other hand, emerged as the current identity panislamisme and Arab nationalism and, ultimately, the rise of fundamentalism religious.
Source : http://ca.wikipedia.org/wiki/M%C3%B3n_isl%C3%A0mic